Oxalates

What are oxalates? Oxalates are salts that form when oxalic acid anions bind with cations (positively charged ions), like calcium (Ca2+) (and in smaller amounts, sodium, potassium, or magnesium) (1, 2, 3, 4). They are naturally occurring metabolites found in both...

Goitrogens

What are goitrogens? Goitrogens are naturally occurring compounds in food and the environment that can block thyroid hormone production in various ways. When thyroid hormone production is suppressed, the thyroid will enlarge to try and compensate. This type of...

Lectins

Last Updated August 2019 What are lectins? Carbohydrate-binding proteins found in plants, animals, bacteria, viruses, and fungi (1, 2). What do lectins do? In plants, they act as a chemical defense mechanism against pathogens, insects, and plant-eating animals (3, 4)....

Histamine

What is histamine? Histamine is a chemical that naturally forms in protein-containing foods as they age. What foods are high in histamine? (Concentration increases with age, so aged foods, especially fermented foods, are the worst) Fish, especially if frozen, smoked,...

FD&C Yellow #6

 What is FD&C Yellow #6? A synthetic food dye used in food, drugs, and cosmetics, in both the US and Europe (1). It provides a yellow-orange color when used. Other names for FD&C Yellow #6: Sunset Yellow FCF E110 (European name) Foods that may...

FD&C Yellow #5

 What is FD&C Yellow #5? A synthetic food dye used in food, drugs, and cosmetics, in both the US and Europe (1). It is the 3rd most common dye used in food products marketed to children, behind Red #40 and Blue #1 (2). Other names for FD&C...